Get Competitive Insights

Join 1400+ subscribers. Learn how to attract customers, beat competitors, and create a competitive advantage.

    The Ultimate Guide to Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    Introduction To Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    Imagine having the power to uncover the secrets of business success, to see what makes companies thrive and others struggle. It’s not a secret society or a magic spell – but it is a tried but true techique called Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis.

    Today, we’re diving deep into the ultimate guide on Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis, a tool that can unlock tactical insights about industries, companies, and competition. 

    Whether you’re a business enthusiast, student, or aspiring entrepreneur, understanding Porter’s 5 Forces is like having a superpower in the business world. So, let’s unravel the mysteries behind this invaluable business tool.

    Definition Of A Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    What Is Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis?

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis is a strategic framework to evaluate the competitive landscape of an industry. 

    It examines five key factors: the threat of new entrants, the bargaining power of buyers, the bargaining power of suppliers, the threat of substitute products or services, and the intensity of competitive rivalry. 

    This analysis helps businesses understand the forces shaping their industry and identify areas of potential competitive advantage or vulnerability.

    History Of Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    Who Created Porter’s 5 Forces?

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis was created by Michael E. Porter. He is a professor at the Harvard Business School and is renowned for his contributions to strategic management and competition.

    When Was Porter’s 5 Forces Created?

    Porter’s 5 Forces was introduced in Michael E. Porter’s book “Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors” which was first published in 1980.

    The model was a revolutionary approach at its time, offering a new framework for evaluating competitive positioning within an industry.

    How Has Porter’s 5 Forces Changed Over Time?

    While the core concepts of Porter’s 5 Forces remain largely consistent since its introduction, the application and interpretation of the model have evolved over time.

    As business landscapes, technologies, and global dynamics have shifted, companies and analysts have adapted the model to fit contemporary challenges. 

    For instance, the rise of digital technology and the internet have emphasized aspects like the power of platforms and network effects.

    While Porter himself has expanded on his original concepts in later works to address modern business environments, the basic five forces have remained foundational in the analysis of competitive strategy.

    Purpose Of A Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    Why Is Porter’s 5 Forces Important?

    Porter’s 5 Forces is a vital tool that provides insight into the competitive landscape of an industry.

    It helps businesses understand the strengths and weaknesses of their industry position and highlights areas of potential threat or opportunity.

    What Is Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Used For?

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis is used for understanding the competitive forces in an industry. It evaluates the intensity of rivalry in the market and identifies factors that can affect profitability

    Companies can use this analysis to shape their strategies, identify potential threats, understand market dynamics, and find areas where they might gain a competitive edge.

    How Does Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Help A Business?

    By laying out the five critical forces that shape industry competition, the model helps businesses:

    • Identify their most significant competitors and understand their strategies.
    • Recognize potential threats from new entrants or substitute products.
    • Understand the bargaining power of their customers and suppliers.
    • Make informed strategic decisions, such as entering a new market, developing a new product, or changing suppliers.
    • Anticipate shifts in the industry dynamics and adapt accordingly.

    Are There Any Industries Where Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Is Particularly Useful Or Not Useful?

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis is versatile and can be applied to almost any industry. However, it’s particularly useful in industries with clear and defined competition, multiple stakeholders, and potential threats from substitutes or new entrants. 

    Examples include the airline, automotive, and technology sectors. In contrast, it might be less insightful for monopolistic industries or extremely niche markets where traditional competitive forces don’t play a significant role.

    Can A Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Be Applied To Non-Profit Organizations?

    Yes, Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis can be adapted for non-profit organizations. While non-profits aren’t driven by profit motives in the same way businesses are, they still face competition for resources, donors, and public attention. 

    By understanding the competitive forces in their sector, non-profits can better position themselves, appeal to donors, collaborate with partners, and deliver on their missions more effectively.

    Advantages And Disadvantages Of Using Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    What Are The Main Advantages Of Using Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis?

    1. Comprehensive Framework: The model provides a holistic view of the competitive environment by examining five key areas. This ensures that businesses do not overlook critical industry dynamics when making strategic decisions.
    2. Increased Awareness: By examining each of the forces, businesses can become more aware of potential threats and opportunities in their industry, helping them to better position themselves for success.
    3. Strategic Decision Making: The insights derived from a Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis can guide businesses in making strategic decisions, such as entering a new market, launching a new product, or forming partnerships.
    4. Easy to Understand and Apply: The model is straightforward, making it easy for businesses of all sizes and across industries to apply it.
    5. Versatility: The analysis can be applied to a wide range of industries and sectors, making it a versatile tool for strategic planners.

    What Are The Potential Disadvantages Of Using Porter’s 5 Forces Model?

    1. Static Model: Porter’s 5 Forces is a static model, meaning it provides a snapshot of the industry at a specific point in time. Industries can evolve rapidly, and what might be a significant force today may not be as influential tomorrow.
    2. Oversimplification: While the model provides a comprehensive view of the competitive landscape, it might not capture all nuances and subtleties of specific industries.
    3. Subjectivity: The weight and influence of each force can be subjective and might vary based on the analyst’s perspective. This could lead to varying interpretations and outcomes.
    4. Lack of Predictive Power: The model identifies current competitive pressures but may not predict future industry changes or shifts.
    5. Overemphasis on External Environment: The model primarily focuses on external industry conditions and might not take into account internal factors such as organizational culture, resources, and capabilities.

    Key Components Of A Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    What Are The Forces In Porter’s 5 Forces Model?

    Porter’s Five Forces Model identifies five competitive forces that shape every industry and market. These forces determine the intensity of competition and hence the profitability and attractiveness of an industry. The five forces are:

    Porter's 5 Forces Analysis
    1. Threat of New Entrants: It assesses the potential of new competitors entering the market. High entry barriers limit new businesses from entering and vice versa.
    2. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: This force analyzes how much power a company’s supplier has. When there are few suppliers, or very unique suppliers, they have more power to dictate prices and terms.
    3. Bargaining Power of Buyers: It looks at the power that consumers have to affect the price they pay. If few large buyers control a significant portion of an industry’s output, they often have leverage to dictate terms.
    4. Threat of Substitute Products or Services: This force assesses the likelihood that customers will switch to a different product or service. If a product can easily be substituted, then it’s a threat.
    5. Competitive Rivalry: The main force is the intensity of rivalry among existing competitors. If competition is fierce, then competitors are trying to steal profit and market share from one another. This means that they might offer better services or lower prices, which can lower profitability.

    How Does Each Force In Porter’s 5 Forces Impact Competition?

    1. Threat of New Entrants: If it’s easy for new companies to enter the industry, then a company’s market position can be weakened. This can also drive down profit margins as new entrants may try to secure a share of the market by undercutting existing players.
    2. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: When suppliers have more power, they can charge higher prices, limit the quality or quantity of goods, or impose their own terms and conditions. This can squeeze profitability and restrict a company’s ability to compete.
    3. Bargaining Power of Buyers: Powerful buyers can demand lower prices or higher product quality, which can decrease a company’s profitability. They can also pit competitors against each other, benefiting from the best deals.
    4. Threat of Substitute Products or Services: When consumers can easily switch to another product or service, this can reduce loyalty and decrease pricing power, impacting profitability.
    5. Rivalry Among Existing Competitors: Intense competition can lead to price wars, aggressive advertising, and new product releases, which can reduce profitability and erode market share. It’s the most direct interaction with competitors and can influence the strategies and actions of companies within an industry.

    Each of these forces can either increase or decrease the level of competition in an industry, making understanding and analysis of these forces vital for strategic planning.

    How Does Porter’s 5 Forces Compare To Other Strategic and Competitive Analysis Models?

    Competitive analysis models provide frameworks for businesses to evaluate their market positioning, understand industry dynamics, and strategize for growth. Each model has its unique focus and applications. Here’s how Porter’s 5 Forces stacks up against other popular models:

    Strategic and Competitive Analysis Models

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Vs SWOT Analysis

    • Porter’s 5 Forces: Focuses on industry competition and analyzes external factors that determine the competitive landscape. It identifies threats and opportunities within the industry structure.
    • SWOT Analysis: A more holistic tool that evaluates both internal (Strengths, Weaknesses) and external (Opportunities, Threats) aspects of a business, not just competition.

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Vs BCG Matrix

    • Porter’s 5 Forces: Analyzes industry structure to gauge attractiveness and competitive dynamics.
    • BCG Matrix: A strategic business unit performance model that categorizes products/services based on market growth and market share. It helps in resource allocation across different business units or products.

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Vs PESTEL Analysis

    • Porter’s 5 Forces: Zooms in on industry-specific factors affecting competition.
    • PESTEL Analysis: A macro-environmental tool that assesses external factors (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, Legal) that might affect an industry or business but not necessarily competition directly.

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Vs Value Chain Analysis

    • Porter’s 5 Forces: Focuses on external industry dynamics.
    • Value Chain Analysis: Examines internal business activities to understand sources of value and differentiation. It’s about optimizing internal processes and understanding value creation.

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Vs VRIO Framework

    • Porter’s 5 Forces: Provides insights into the external competitive environment of an industry.
    • VRIO Framework: Evaluates a company’s internal resources in terms of Value, Rarity, Imitability, and Organization to determine if they can be a source of sustained competitive advantage.

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Vs Ansoff Matrix

    • Porter’s 5 Forces: Analyzes external industry competition and attractiveness.
    • Ansoff Matrix: A strategic planning tool that focuses on a company’s present and potential products and markets, guiding growth strategies.

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Vs GE McKinsey Matrix

    • Porter’s 5 Forces: Looks at the competitive forces within an industry.
    • GE McKinsey Matrix: A portfolio management tool that evaluates business units in terms of market attractiveness and business unit strength.

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Vs TOWS Matrix

    • Porter’s 5 Forces: Focuses strictly on external industry competition.
    • TOWS Matrix: An extension of SWOT, it links external opportunities and threats with internal strengths and weaknesses to develop strategic options.

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Vs Four Corners Analysis

    • Porter’s 5 Forces: Assesses the competitive dynamics of an industry.
    • Four Corners Analysis: Aims to predict competitors’ moves by understanding their motivations and capabilities.

    Each model, while having some overlapping elements, offers unique perspectives and serves different strategic needs. The choice of model largely depends on the specific challenges a business is facing and the kind of insights they seek.

    Adapting Porter’s 5 Forces To Modern Business Context

    How Does Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Fit Into The Digital Age And Tech-Driven Industries?

    In the Digital Age, where tech-driven industries dominate, Porter’s 5 Forces can still offer valuable insights, but with some nuances.

    • Threat of New Entrants: The digital landscape has lowered barriers to entry in many industries. For example, app stores have made it easier for software developers to release new apps and reach a global audience. However, while entering might be easier, scaling and maintaining a presence can be more challenging given the speed of technological advancements.
    • Bargaining Power of Buyers: Online reviews, social media, and instant feedback mechanisms have increased the power of buyers. Consumers can easily switch between digital services and platforms, emphasizing the importance of customer experience and service.
    • Bargaining Power of Suppliers: In the tech world, suppliers can range from software developers to cloud service providers. The increasing demand for specialized tech talent, for instance, has given certain suppliers (like AI specialists) significant bargaining power.
    • Threat of Substitute Products or Services: The pace of innovation means that substitute products or services emerge rapidly. Video streaming services, for example, face competition not just from direct competitors but also from alternative entertainment options like gaming or social media.
    • Rivalry Among Existing Competitors: The digital realm is dynamic, with tech companies often pivoting their business models, leading to increased unpredictability. Rivalries can be fierce, especially when network effects come into play (e.g., social media platforms where value increases as more people join).

    Can Porter’s 5 Forces Be Adapted For Startups And Innovation-Driven Sectors?

    Absolutely, Porter’s 5 Forces can be tailored to fit the context of startups and innovative sectors, though with some modifications:

    • Threat of New Entrants: For startups, this might be even more pertinent. Given the innovative nature of the sector, new players with disruptive ideas emerge continually. However, startups might also benefit from being agile and first-mover advantages in niche areas.
    • Bargaining Power of Buyers: In innovation-driven sectors, customers might be early adopters who are willing to take risks on unproven products or services. This can be a double-edged sword: while they might be more forgiving of initial shortcomings, they also have high expectations for innovation and improvements.
    • Bargaining Power of Suppliers: For startups, especially those in tech, dependencies might be on a few key suppliers or partners, be it for technology, distribution, or expertise. This can increase the supplier’s bargaining power.
    • Threat of Substitute Products or Services: Given the rapid pace of innovation, startups must always be on the lookout for alternative solutions that might render their offerings obsolete.
    • Rivalry Among Existing Competitors: In startup ecosystems, collaboration can sometimes be as critical as competition. Today’s competitor might be tomorrow’s collaborator or even a merger opportunity.

    While Porter’s 5 Forces can certainly be adapted for the modern business context, understanding the unique dynamics of the digital age and startup ecosystems is crucial for accurate analysis.

    How To Do A Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis?

    To perform a Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis, you need to evaluate the competitive environment of an industry through the lens of five distinct forces. The analysis aims to determine the level of competition and the potential profitability within a given industry.

    What Are The Steps For Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis?

    • Determine the Threat of New Entrants: Analyze barriers to entry like capital requirements, economies of scale, access to distribution channels, and the expected retaliation from current industry players.
    • Assess the Bargaining Power of Suppliers: Evaluate the number of suppliers, uniqueness of their product or service, relative size and strength of suppliers, and the cost of switching from one supplier to another.
    • Evaluate the Bargaining Power of Buyers: Consider factors such as the number of buyers, their buying volumes, and the differentiation between products.
    • Analyze the Threat of Substitute Products or Services: Look at the availability of alternative solutions that might replace your product or service, and the price of these substitutes.
    • Determine the Intensity of Competitive Rivalry: Examine the number and capability of competitors, rate of industry growth, and the nature of exit barriers.

    What Are Good Sources of Data For A Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis?

    • Industry Reports and Publications: Many industry associations publish annual reports detailing trends and changes.
    • Government Databases: Some government departments or agencies offer detailed insights into specific industries.
    • Surveys and Interviews: Reach out to stakeholders in the industry, from suppliers to customers, to gather firsthand data.
    • Competitor Annual Reports: Public companies often provide detailed insights into the industry in their annual reports.
    • News and Media: Monitor industry news and articles to identify potential threats or changes in the competitive environment.

    How Often Should A Company Conduct A Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis?

    The frequency of the analysis largely depends on the dynamism of the industry. In rapidly changing industries, like technology or fashion, it might be beneficial to perform the analysis annually or even bi-annually. 

    For more stable industries, every 2-3 years might suffice. However, it’s always a good practice to revisit the analysis whenever significant industry shifts are detected.

    Best Practices For Conducting A Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    1. Stay Objective: It’s crucial to avoid biases when evaluating each force. Approach the analysis with an open mind.
    2. Use Reliable Data Sources: Ensure that your data sources are current and reputable.
    3. Collaborate: Engage with different departments in your company for diverse insights.
    4. Avoid Overgeneralization: Each industry has its nuances. Ensure your analysis is specific to the industry you’re analyzing.
    5. Act on Insights: The analysis is beneficial only if you use its insights to inform strategy.

    How To Apply A Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    How Can Businesses Address Each Of The Porter’s 5 Forces?

    1. Threat of New Entrants:
      • Barriers to Entry: Strengthen barriers to entry by building brand loyalty, securing patents, or accessing preferential distribution channels.
      • Capital Requirements: Invest in infrastructure, technology, or processes that can be cost-prohibitive for new entrants.
      • Economies of Scale: Increase production or expand offerings to reduce cost per unit and make entry less attractive for newcomers.
    2. Bargaining Power of Suppliers:
      • Diversify Supplier Base: Don’t rely on a single supplier. By diversifying your supplier base, you can negotiate better terms and reduce dependency.
      • Backward Integration: Consider owning or controlling your supply chain. This can make you less dependent on external suppliers.
      • Substitute Inputs: Look for alternative materials or inputs that can replace current ones if suppliers increase prices or reduce quality.
    3. Bargaining Power of Buyers:
      • Differentiation: Create unique products or services that aren’t easily replaceable, making your offerings more valuable to buyers.
      • Build Strong Relationships: Cultivate strong ties with important clients or buyers to make switching to a competitor less attractive.
      • Loyalty Programs: Implement loyalty programs to incentivize repeat business and reduce the chances of buyers switching.
    4. Threat of Substitute Products or Services:
      • Continuous Innovation: Continuously upgrade and innovate your product or service to stay ahead of potential substitutes.
      • Understand Customer Needs: Stay attuned to the evolving needs of your customers. If they find a need that isn’t met by your product, they may switch to a substitute.
      • Price Competitive Strategy: Offer competitive pricing or bundle products/services to provide more value than potential substitutes.
    5. Intensity of Rivalry Among Existing Competitors:
      • Find a Niche: Differentiate yourself by focusing on a niche market or offering where you can be the best.
      • Build Strong Brand Identity: A strong brand can set you apart from competitors and reduce price wars.
      • Collaborate: Consider strategic partnerships or alliances with competitors to explore new markets or share resources, reducing direct competition.

    How To Communicate A Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    Potential Methods To Report Findings Of An Analysis

    When conducting a Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis, effective communication is crucial. The clarity with which findings are presented can influence decision-making processes. Below are three methods to report the findings of a Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis.

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Written Report

    A written report is a traditional method of communicating the findings of a Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis. This method typically involves:

    • Executive Summary: Briefly describe the purpose of the analysis and its key findings.
    • Introduction: Discuss the industry or segment under examination.
    • Detailed Analysis: Break down each of the five forces, providing a description, the data supporting the analysis, and the conclusions drawn.
    • Recommendations: Based on the analysis, present strategies or steps the organization should consider.
    • Conclusion: Summarize the overall findings and potential implications for the business.
    • Appendices: Include any additional data or resources that further support the analysis.
    Porter's 5 Forces PowerPoint

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis PowerPoint

    Using PowerPoint (or other presentation software) can be an effective way to visually convey the analysis, especially in meetings:

    • Slide 1: Title Slide – Introduce the topic.
    • Slide 2: Overview – Briefly describe Porter’s 5 Forces and its relevance.
    • Slides 3-7: The Five Forces – Dedicate a slide to each force, using graphics, charts, and bullet points to illustrate key findings.
    • Slide 8: Implications – Highlight the combined impact of the forces on the industry or business.
    • Slide 9: Recommendations – Offer actionable insights or strategies.
    • Slide 10: Conclusion and Q&A – Summarize key points and open the floor for questions.

    Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis Excel

    Excel can be a useful tool, particularly for capturing data and creating visual representations:

    • Sheet 1: Overview – List the five forces and provide a summary score or rating for each based on the analysis.
    • Sheets 2-6: Detailed Analysis – Dedicate a sheet for each force, tabulating the data and factors considered for the analysis. Use charts and graphs to visually represent trends or comparisons.
    • Sheet 7: Recommendations – Based on data from the previous sheets, provide a list of recommendations.
    • Sheet 8: Resources & References – Document sources or additional resources that informed the analysis.

    Using Excel allows for dynamic data analysis, such as creating interactive charts or employing formulas to weigh different factors, making it easier to manipulate data and see potential scenarios.

    Each method serves a different purpose and caters to various audiences. The choice depends on the context, the audience’s preference, and the nature of the data collected during the analysis.

    Future Of Competitive Analysis

    How Might Competitive Analysis Models Evolve In The Future?

    As businesses evolve, so do the tools and models they employ. Competitive analysis models, which have traditionally focused on tangible assets and direct competition, might evolve in the following ways:

    • Greater Emphasis on Intangibles: With the increasing importance of brand, intellectual property, data, and customer experience, future models might put more emphasis on evaluating these intangible assets.
    • Real-time Analysis: With advancements in AI and big data, future competitive analysis models might provide real-time insights into market dynamics, allowing companies to make quicker decisions.
    • Integration with Tech Ecosystems: As companies become more integrated into technological ecosystems (like cloud platforms, IoT, etc.), competitive analysis will need to consider interdependencies and network effects more prominently.
    • Ethical and Sustainability Factors: Increasingly conscious consumers are demanding ethical and sustainable practices. Future models might incorporate metrics related to environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors.
    • Hyper-personalized Customer Insights: As data analytics and customer segmentation become more sophisticated, competitive analysis models could incorporate more granular insights about customer preferences and behaviors.
    Porter's 5 Forces Future Trends

    What Emerging Trends Could Impact Porter’s 5 Forces In The Coming Years?

    • Digital Disruption: The digital transformation and the rise of platform-based businesses are challenging the traditional notions of competition. For example, companies like Uber or Airbnb have redefined entire industries without owning traditional assets.
    • Globalization vs. Localization: While globalization allows companies to reach international markets, there’s a trend toward localization and custom solutions for specific markets. This dual trend might require a more nuanced approach than Porter’s traditional model.
    • Rise of Collaborative Ecosystems: Companies no longer compete just as individual entities. They are increasingly part of broader ecosystems, where collaboration and co-opetition (cooperative competition) are common.
    • Environmental and Social Considerations: As mentioned above, with the increasing emphasis on sustainability and corporate social responsibility, Porter’s model might need adaptations to account for these non-traditional competitive factors.
    • The Gig and Freelance Economy: The changing nature of work, with more freelancers and less traditional employment, might influence industry dynamics in ways not covered by the original Five Forces.
    • Rapid Technological Advancements: Technologies like AI, blockchain, and quantum computing can disrupt industries overnight, introducing new competitors and changing the power dynamics in an industry.

    While Porter’s 5 Forces remains a foundational tool, these trends suggest that it will need to be used in conjunction with other tools and frameworks, or adapted to remain relevant in the rapidly changing business landscape.

    FAQ: Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

    Is Porter’s 5 Forces Internal Or External?

    Porter’s 5 Forces primarily focuses on the external environment of an organization. It evaluates the competitive forces in the market landscape that can impact a company’s profitability and strategic position.

    What Are The Limitations Of Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis?

    While Porter’s 5 Forces is a powerful tool for analyzing competitive landscapes, it has some limitations:

    • Static Model: The model is essentially a snapshot in time and may not account for rapidly changing markets, especially in technology-driven sectors.
    • Overemphasis on Competition: The model mainly focuses on competition and may overlook other potential collaborative models like strategic alliances.
    • Simplicity: While its simplicity is a strength, it can also be a limitation as it may not capture the complexities and nuances of every industry.
    • Macro Environmental Factors: Factors like technological, legal, or socio-cultural changes (which can be captured in models like PESTEL) are not directly addressed by the 5 Forces.

    Is Porter’s 5 Forces Still Relevant?

    Yes, Porter’s 5 Forces remains a relevant tool for understanding the competitive forces at play in an industry. Although the business environment has changed dramatically with the advent of digitalization, globalization, and other trends, the fundamental pressures exerted by the forces identified by Porter still hold.

    However, it’s essential to adapt and interpret the model considering the unique characteristics and dynamics of modern industries.

    What Are The Common Misconceptions About Porter’s 5 Forces?

    Several misconceptions exist around the model, including:

    • Universal Application: One misconception is that the model applies uniformly across all industries. In reality, the weight or impact of each force may vary depending on the industry.
    • Only for Large Corporations: While the model is widely taught in business schools and often associated with large corporations, it can also provide valuable insights for small businesses and startups.

    Popular Issues

    Popular Posts

    Related posts